Indium- Indium is among the most versatile metals on earth and is used in a very wide range of applications and industries. Indium is highly malleable and ductile. The metal also has very good electrical and thermal conductivity thus making it even more suitable for use in soldering tasks. Indium-based alloys tend to have liquidus below 180 degrees Celsius making them perfect for use in procedures that make use of very low reflow temperatures. Unlike most other soldering metals, indium is very rare in the earth’s crust and this explains its limited use in soldering and other industries. The metal is silvery white and has a characteristic luster not common in many metals. In its pure form, indium has a low melting point of about 318 degrees Fahrenheit.
Infrared soldering- Also known as fiber-focus soldering, it is a relatively new soldering technique that involves passing infrared rays from various sources through a fiber elements and then focusing all these rays onto a single spot where the solder is applied and the materials bond. Infrared waves a reused in heating in many industries such as aviation, kitchen appliances and spas.
Iron- Often used to refer to the regular soldering iron. It is in essence a small, often hand-held tool that could be power or gas operated depending on a variety of factors that melts solder from a source of heat to join various elements known as work-pieces. A soldering iron is made of four components, the power cord –for electric soldering irons- , the tip, thermostat control and the grip. For gas operated or cordless soldering irons, the power cord is replaced by a small internal tank that contains combustible gases such as butane to provide the heat.
Insufficient solder connection- Also known as a solder starved joint, it is the point of a bond formed by molten solder that did not receive as much solder as required. Solder starved joints can be caused by a wide range of factors including incorrect soldering temperatures, poor contact between the solder and iron tip and use of poor quality solder.